FOREST CLEARING IN THE GRAY'S RIVER WATERSHED
1905-1996

by


MARK G. SCOTT

A research paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
MASTER OF SCIENCE in GEOGRAPHY Portland State University 2001


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER 1: THE WESTERN WASHINGTON FOREST ECOSYSTEM

1.1 Fundamentals of the Natural Forest Ecosystem - Ecological View

Succession
The Old-Growth Ecosystem
Second-Growth
Natural Disturbance

1.2 Forest Growth Following Human Disturbance

The Timber Industry View of the Forest
Soil and Stream Modifications
Fragmentation
Simplification

 

CHAPTER 2: FOREST HISTORY OF THE GRAY'S RIVER WATERSHED

2.1 The Original Gray's River Watershed Forest

2.2 The Study

Forest Age Classification: Seral Stages
Mapping the Changes

2.3 Seeking A Pattern in Forest History

Pre-European Settlement Conditions
Forestry in Gray's River: 1905
Early 20th Century Forestry 1905-1942
Post-Depression Era Forestry: 1942-1953
Export Market Opens: 1953-1964
Massive Logging Operations: 1964-1976
Fragmented Old-growth: 1976-1983
Declining Old-Growth: 1983-1990
Recent Era: 1990-1996

Summary of Forest Harvesting 1905-1996

 

CHAPTER 3 THE PRESENT AND FUTURE FOREST

3.1 Recommendations for the Future of the Forest

3.2 Timber Forecasting

80-Year Rotation
60-Year Rotation
40-Year Rotation
Preservation

3.3 Impacts of Repetitive Harvesting

Mass Wasting
Potential Erosion Resulting From Clear-cutting
Erosion Hazards From Forest Roads

3.4 Conclusion

Works Cited

View the GIS Presentation